Precautions to be taken while combing hair
Hair combing is a routine activity of almost all people.Some people keep a particular hair style throughout their life and some especially younger generation adopt new styles according to new trends and fashion.Hair styles has got close relation with the personality of a person.The hair of an unhygeinic person is usually tangled and dirty because of lack of washing and combing.To have a healthy scalp hair proper nutrition is needed.General health has got direct relation with the quality and quantity of hair.Regular washing,use of hair oil,proper combing ect are also needed to make the hair beautiful.General hints for combing is discussed here.
1) Different varieties of combs are available in the market.The best comb is selected by considering the nature of hair(hard or soft,long or short) ,style and convenience.
2) Combing should be done with utmost care and concentration.Some people especially gents think about some other matters and comb without any care which may be harmful to the hairs.
3) Combing should be gentle .A vigorous combing can increase hairfalling.
4) Do not comb if the hair is wet. First dry it with a towel and then put some oil and gently massage it.Now the combing will be easy and harmless.
5) Should not be combed in the opposite direction of hairs.This can increase hair falling.
6) Vigorous combing in backward direction can produce traction baldness.
7) Frequent combing can damage the scalp and the hair follicles.Those who carry pocket comb use it frequently and make it a habit.Combing two or three times in a day is sufficient.
8) The tooth of the comb should not be sharp and it should not be pressed too tightly on the scalp.
9) Always clean the comb before and after use because hair and dirt deposited in the gap will make combing diffucult and painful.
10) Others comb should not be used.This helps to prevent fungal and bacterial infections.Head lice can also spread from one person to other by sharing the combs.
11) Combing the tangled hair is difficult and painful.Hence use some shampoo for cleaning and after drying put oil and make the hairs free for an easy combing.
Hernia is an abnormal protrusion of internal organs through an abnormal opening in the wall of the cavity.A combination of increased pressure inside the body with weakness in the wall is responsible for this condition.In this condition internal organs or parts of organs are protruded out forming a swelling which will increase the size with coughing and lifting weight,and while passing stool and urine.In lying down position the swelling goes inside except in strangulated and irreducible hernia.
1, Weakness in the body wall:--
a) Congenital weakness.
b) Acquired weakness due to injuries,wasting of muscles,suppurative lesions in the wall and presence of weak natural openings,obesity,lack of exercise,repeated pregnancy.
c) Surgical operation with improper suturing or sepsis of operated site.
2) Increased pressure inside the body.
a) Chronic constipation.
b) Recurrent cough.
c) Weight lifting.
d) Stricture of urethra.
Common sites for hernia:--
Hernia can occure anywhere in the body.However there are some common sites for hernia.Due to the presence of hard bony covering chest wall is normally not affected.Hernia in the lower back is also rare due to spine and back muscles and tough ligaments and sheeths.The common site for hernia is abdominal wall.Compared to other parts the abdominal wall is weak due to the presence of some natural orifices.There are some areas wherein the abdominal muscles are weaker and thin and all these factors make a chance for herniation.The common sites for hernia are following.
a) Inguinal hernia:
Here the abdominal contents protrude through the inguinal canal (passage in the lower abdominal wall just above the inguinal ligament.It is seen on either side).This type is common in males.Initially the swelling comes only while straining and goes back while lying down. Later the large portion of intestine may come out which may not go back easily.
b) Femoral hernia:
This type of hernia is more in females.Here the abdominal contents pass through the femoral canal which is seen just below the junction between the thigh and lower abdominal wall(Inside the femoral triangle).The contents pass downwards and comes out through saphenous opening in the thigh and forms a swelling under the skin.
c) Umbilical hernia:
This is common in children.The umbilicus is the weaker part of the abdomen.The contents of the abdomen may protrude as a bulb like swelling while crying and defecating.
d) Incisional hernia:
These hernias are seen in operated sites. Due to improper suturing or sepsis the operated site becomes weak resulting in hernia.
e) Epigastric hernia:
Here the hearniation occures in the epigastrium. It is a rare type.
f) Lumbar hernia:
Here the hernia appear in the lumbar area on either side of the lumbar spine(in the lumbar triangle).This is also a rare type.
g) Obturator hernia:
This is a rare type of hernia. Here the contents pass through obturator foramen in the pelvic bone.
Complications of hernia:--
If the hernial orifice is narrow the abdominal contents may not go back easily, and later the blood flow to the herniated tissues may be blocked due to constricition.This can cause death of protruded intestine.
2) Intestinal obstruction:
This occures when the whole portion of the intestine is protruded in to the hernial sac. The narrow hernial orifice will block the passage of bowels.
3) Infection and peritonitis:
If there is strangulation with death of a portion of intestine there will be spread of infection to the abdomen resulting in peritonitis.
Treatment of hernia:--
Initial treatment: In the initial stages of hernia the following steps may be useful
1) Use of hernia belt:
Special types of hernia belts are available for each type of heania.This will prevent the protrusion and will reduce pain.
2) Constipation,recurrent cough,urinary obstruction ect should be treated.
3) Fat reduction will increase the strength of abdominal wall.
4) Abdominal exercises to increase the muscle tone.
5) Take plenty of leafy vegetables, fruits and fibrous diet for easy bowel movements.
6) Try other systems like Homoeopathy,Herbal medicine and ect
If no relief by the above steps consult a general surgeon for surgical management.
The following operations are done depending up on the type and nature of hernia.
1) Hertniotomy : In this operation the contents of hernial sac is pushed in to the abdomen and neck of the sac is ligated with transfixion ligature and the sac is cut off.
2) Herniorrhaphy: Here along with herniotomy the posterior wall is repaired.
3) Hernioplasty: This operation is done if herniotomy is not possible due to wide neck of the sac.Here the repair is done with the healp of non absorbable materials like tantalum gauze,polypropylene mesh or stainless steel mesh.